Robot Telemetry with Sendable

While the WPILib dashboard APIs allow users to easily send small pieces of data from their robot code to the dashboard, it is often tedious to manually write code for publishing telemetry values from the robot code’s operational logic.

A cleaner approach is to leverage the existing object-oriented structure of user code to declaratively mark important data fields for telemetry logging. The WPILib framework can then handle the tedious/tricky part of correctly reading from (and, potentially, writing to) those fields for you, greatly reducing the total amount of code the user has to write and improving readability.

WPILib provides this functionality with the Sendable interface. Classes that implement Sendable are able to register value listeners that automatically send data to the dashboard - and, in some cases, receive values back. These classes can be declaratively sent to any of the WPILib dashboards (as one would an ordinary data field), removing the need for teams to write their own code to send/poll for updates.

What is Sendable?

Sendable (Java, C++) is an interface provided by WPILib to facilitate robot telemetry. Classes that implement Sendable can declaratively send their state to the dashboard - once declared, WPILib will automatically send the telemetry values every robot loop. This removes the need for teams to handle the iteration-to-iteration logic of sending and receiving values from the dashboard, and also allows teams to separate their telemetry code from their robot logic.

Many WPILib classes (such as Commands) already implement Sendable, and so can be sent to the dashboard without any user modification. Users are also able to easily extend their own classes to implement Sendable.

The Sendable interface contains only one method: initSendable. Implementing classes override this method to perform the binding of in-code data values to structured JSON data, which is then automatically sent to the robot dashboard via NetworkTables. Implementation of the Sendable interface is discussed in the next article.

Sending a Sendable to the Dashboard


Unlike simple data types, Sendables are automatically kept up-to-date on the dashboard by WPILib, without any further user code - “set it and forget it”. Accordingly, they should usually be sent to the dashboard in an initialization block or constructor, not in a periodic function.

To send a Sendable object to the dashboard, simply use the dashboard’s putData method. For example, an “arm” class that uses a PID Controller can automatically log telemetry from the controller by calling the following in its constructor:

SmartDashboard.putData("Arm PID", armPIDController);

Additionally, some Sendable classes bind setters to the data values sent from the dashboard to the robot, allowing remote tuning of robot parameters.