# Mecanum Drive Kinematics

The `MecanumDriveKinematics`

class is a useful tool that converts between a `ChassisSpeeds`

object and a `MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds`

object, which contains velocities for each of the four wheels on a mecanum drive.

Note

Mecanum kinematics uses a common coordinate system. You may wish to reference the Coordinate System section for details.

## Constructing the Kinematics Object

The `MecanumDriveKinematics`

class accepts four constructor arguments, with each argument being the location of a wheel relative to the robot center (as a `Translation2d`

). The order for the arguments is front left, front right, back left, and back right. The locations for the wheels must be relative to the center of the robot. Positive x values represent moving toward the front of the robot whereas positive y values represent moving toward the left of the robot.

```
// Locations of the wheels relative to the robot center.
Translation2d m_frontLeftLocation = new Translation2d(0.381, 0.381);
Translation2d m_frontRightLocation = new Translation2d(0.381, -0.381);
Translation2d m_backLeftLocation = new Translation2d(-0.381, 0.381);
Translation2d m_backRightLocation = new Translation2d(-0.381, -0.381);
// Creating my kinematics object using the wheel locations.
MecanumDriveKinematics m_kinematics = new MecanumDriveKinematics(
m_frontLeftLocation, m_frontRightLocation, m_backLeftLocation, m_backRightLocation
);
```

```
// Locations of the wheels relative to the robot center.
frc::Translation2d m_frontLeftLocation{0.381_m, 0.381_m};
frc::Translation2d m_frontRightLocation{0.381_m, -0.381_m};
frc::Translation2d m_backLeftLocation{-0.381_m, 0.381_m};
frc::Translation2d m_backRightLocation{-0.381_m, -0.381_m};
// Creating my kinematics object using the wheel locations.
frc::MecanumDriveKinematics m_kinematics{
m_frontLeftLocation, m_frontRightLocation, m_backLeftLocation,
m_backRightLocation};
```

```
from wpimath.geometry import Translation2d
from wpimath.kinematics import MecanumDriveKinematics
# Locations of the wheels relative to the robot center.
frontLeftLocation = Translation2d(0.381, 0.381)
frontRightLocation = Translation2d(0.381, -0.381)
backLeftLocation = Translation2d(-0.381, 0.381)
backRightLocation = Translation2d(-0.381, -0.381)
# Creating my kinematics object using the wheel locations.
self.kinematics = MecanumDriveKinematics(
frontLeftLocation, frontRightLocation, backLeftLocation, backRightLocation
)
```

## Converting Chassis Speeds to Wheel Speeds

The `toWheelSpeeds(ChassisSpeeds speeds)`

(Java / Python) / `ToWheelSpeeds(ChassisSpeeds speeds)`

(C++) method should be used to convert a `ChassisSpeeds`

object to a `MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds`

object. This is useful in situations where you have to convert a forward velocity, sideways velocity, and an angular velocity into individual wheel speeds.

```
// Example chassis speeds: 1 meter per second forward, 3 meters
// per second to the left, and rotation at 1.5 radians per second
// counterclockwise.
ChassisSpeeds speeds = new ChassisSpeeds(1.0, 3.0, 1.5);
// Convert to wheel speeds
MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds wheelSpeeds = kinematics.toWheelSpeeds(speeds);
// Get the individual wheel speeds
double frontLeft = wheelSpeeds.frontLeftMetersPerSecond
double frontRight = wheelSpeeds.frontRightMetersPerSecond
double backLeft = wheelSpeeds.rearLeftMetersPerSecond
double backRight = wheelSpeeds.rearRightMetersPerSecond
```

```
// Example chassis speeds: 1 meter per second forward, 3 meters
// per second to the left, and rotation at 1.5 radians per second
// counterclockwise.
frc::ChassisSpeeds speeds{1_mps, 3_mps, 1.5_rad_per_s};
// Convert to wheel speeds. Here, we can use C++17's structured
// bindings feature to automatically split up the MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds
// struct into it's individual components
auto [fl, fr, bl, br] = kinematics.ToWheelSpeeds(speeds);
```

```
from wpimath.kinematics import ChassisSpeeds
# Example chassis speeds: 1 meter per second forward, 3 meters
# per second to the left, and rotation at 1.5 radians per second
# counterclockwise.
speeds = ChassisSpeeds(1.0, 3.0, 1.5)
# Convert to wheel speeds
frontLeft, frontRight, backLeft, backRight = self.kinematics.toWheelSpeeds(speeds)
```

### Field-oriented drive

Recall that a `ChassisSpeeds`

object can be created from a set of desired field-oriented speeds. This feature can be used to get wheel speeds from a set of desired field-oriented speeds.

```
// The desired field relative speed here is 2 meters per second
// toward the opponent's alliance station wall, and 2 meters per
// second toward the left field boundary. The desired rotation
// is a quarter of a rotation per second counterclockwise. The current
// robot angle is 45 degrees.
ChassisSpeeds speeds = ChassisSpeeds.fromFieldRelativeSpeeds(
2.0, 2.0, Math.PI / 2.0, Rotation2d.fromDegrees(45.0));
// Now use this in our kinematics
MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds wheelSpeeds = kinematics.toWheelSpeeds(speeds);
```

```
// The desired field relative speed here is 2 meters per second
// toward the opponent's alliance station wall, and 2 meters per
// second toward the left field boundary. The desired rotation
// is a quarter of a rotation per second counterclockwise. The current
// robot angle is 45 degrees.
frc::ChassisSpeeds speeds = frc::ChassisSpeeds::FromFieldRelativeSpeeds(
2_mps, 2_mps, units::radians_per_second_t(std::numbers::pi / 2.0), Rotation2d(45_deg));
// Now use this in our kinematics
auto [fl, fr, bl, br] = kinematics.ToWheelSpeeds(speeds);
```

```
from wpimath.kinematics import ChassisSpeeds
import math
from wpimath.geometry import Rotation2d
# The desired field relative speed here is 2 meters per second
# toward the opponent's alliance station wall, and 2 meters per
# second toward the left field boundary. The desired rotation
# is a quarter of a rotation per second counterclockwise. The current
# robot angle is 45 degrees.
speeds = ChassisSpeeds.fromFieldRelativeSpeeds(
2.0, 2.0, math.pi / 2.0, Rotation2d.fromDegrees(45.0))
# Now use this in our kinematics
wheelSpeeds = self.kinematics.toWheelSpeeds(speeds)
```

### Using custom centers of rotation

Sometimes, rotating around one specific corner might be desirable for certain evasive maneuvers. This type of behavior is also supported by the WPILib classes. The same `ToWheelSpeeds()`

method accepts a second parameter for the center of rotation (as a `Translation2d`

). Just like the wheel locations, the `Translation2d`

representing the center of rotation should be relative to the robot center.

Note

Because all robots are a rigid frame, the provided `vx`

and `vy`

velocities from the `ChassisSpeeds`

object will still apply for the entirety of the robot. However, the `omega`

from the `ChassisSpeeds`

object will be measured from the center of rotation.

For example, one can set the center of rotation on a certain wheel and if the provided `ChassisSpeeds`

object has a `vx`

and `vy`

of zero and a non-zero `omega`

, the robot will appear to rotate around that particular wheel.

## Converting wheel speeds to chassis speeds

One can also use the kinematics object to convert a `MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds`

object to a singular `ChassisSpeeds`

object. The `toChassisSpeeds(MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds speeds)`

(Java / Python) / `ToChassisSpeeds(MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds speeds)`

(C++) method can be used to achieve this.

```
// Example wheel speeds
var wheelSpeeds = new MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds(-17.67, 20.51, -13.44, 16.26);
// Convert to chassis speeds
ChassisSpeeds chassisSpeeds = kinematics.toChassisSpeeds(wheelSpeeds);
// Getting individual speeds
double forward = chassisSpeeds.vxMetersPerSecond;
double sideways = chassisSpeeds.vyMetersPerSecond;
double angular = chassisSpeeds.omegaRadiansPerSecond;
```

```
// Example wheel speeds
frc::MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds wheelSpeeds{-17.67_mps, 20.51_mps, -13.44_mps, 16.26_mps};
// Convert to chassis speeds. Here, we can use C++17's structured bindings
// feature to automatically break up the ChassisSpeeds struct into its
// three components.
auto [forward, sideways, angular] = kinematics.ToChassisSpeeds(wheelSpeeds);
```

```
from wpimath.kinematics import MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds
# Example wheel speeds
wheelSpeeds = MecanumDriveWheelSpeeds(-17.67, 20.51, -13.44, 16.26)
# Convert to chassis speeds
chassisSpeeds = self.kinematics.toChassisSpeeds(wheelSpeeds)
# Getting individual speeds
forward = chassisSpeeds.vx
sideways = chassisSpeeds.vy
angular = chassisSpeeds.omega
```