# Feedforward Control in WPILib

Nota

This article focuses on in-code implementation of feedforward control in WPILib. For a conceptual explanation of the feedforward equations used by WPILib, see Introduction to DC Motor Feedforward

You may have used feedback control (such as PID) for reference tracking (making a system’s output follow a desired reference signal). While this is effective, it’s a reactionary measure; the system won’t start applying control effort until the system is already behind. If we could tell the controller about the desired movement and required input beforehand, the system could react quicker and the feedback controller could do less work. A controller that feeds information forward into the plant like this is called a feedforward controller.

A feedforward controller injects information about the system’s dynamics (like a mathematical model does) or the intended movement. Feedforward handles parts of the control actions we already know must be applied to make a system track a reference, then feedback compensates for what we do not or cannot know about the system’s behavior at runtime.

## The WPILib Feedforward Classes

WPILib provides a number of classes to help users implement accurate feedforward control for their mechanisms. In many ways, an accurate feedforward is more important than feedback to effective control of a mechanism. Since most FRC® mechanisms closely obey well-understood system equations, starting with an accurate feedforward is both easy and hugely beneficial to accurate and robust mechanism control.

The WPILib feedforward classes closely match the available mechanism characterization tools available in the SysId toolsuite. The system identification toolsuite can be used to quickly and effectively determine the correct gains for each type of feedforward. If you are unable to empirically characterize your mechanism (due to space and/or time constraints), reasonable estimates of `kG`

, `kV`

, and `kA`

can be obtained by fairly simple computation, and are also available from ReCalc. `kS`

is nearly impossible to model, and must be measured empirically.

WPILib currently provides the following three helper classes for feedforward control:

## SimpleMotorFeedforward

Nota

In C++, the `SimpleMotorFeedforward`

class is templated on the unit type used for distance measurements, which may be angular or linear. The passed-in gains *must* have units consistent with the distance units, or a compile-time error will be thrown. `kS`

should have units of `volts`

, `kV`

should have units of `volts * seconds / distance`

, and `kA`

should have units of `volts * seconds^2 / distance`

. For more information on C++ units, see The C++ Units Library.

Nota

The Java feedforward components will calculate outputs in units determined by the units of the user-provided feedforward gains. Users *must* take care to keep units consistent, as WPILibJ does not have a type-safe unit system.

Nota

The API documentation for Python feedforward components indicate which unit is being used as `wpimath.units.NAME`

. Users *must* take care to use correct units, as Python does not have a type-safe unit system.

The `SimpleMotorFeedforward`

class calculates feedforwards for mechanisms that consist of permanent-magnet DC motors with no external loading other than friction and inertia, such as flywheels and robot drives.

To create a `SimpleMotorFeedforward`

, simply construct it with the required gains:

Nota

The `kA`

gain can be omitted, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. For many mechanisms, especially those with little inertia, it is not necessary.

```
// Create a new SimpleMotorFeedforward with gains kS, kV, and kA
SimpleMotorFeedforward feedforward = new SimpleMotorFeedforward(kS, kV, kA);
```

```
// Create a new SimpleMotorFeedforward with gains kS, kV, and kA
// Distance is measured in meters
frc::SimpleMotorFeedforward<units::meters> feedforward(kS, kV, kA);
```

```
from wpimath.controller import SimpleMotorFeedforwardMeters
# Create a new SimpleMotorFeedforward with gains kS, kV, and kA
# Distance is measured in meters
feedforward = SimpleMotorFeedforwardMeters(kS, kV, kA)
```

To calculate the feedforward, simply call the `calculate()`

method with the desired motor velocity and acceleration:

Nota

The acceleration argument may be omitted from the `calculate()`

call, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. This should be done whenever there is not a clearly-defined acceleration setpoint.

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 10 units/second and an acceleration of 20 units/second^2
// Units are determined by the units of the gains passed in at construction.
feedforward.calculate(10, 20);
```

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 10 meters/second and an acceleration of 20 meters/second^2
// Output is in volts
feedforward.Calculate(10_mps, 20_mps_sq);
```

```
# Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 10 meters/second and an acceleration of 20 meters/second^2
# Output is in volts
feedforward.calculate(10, 20)
```

## ArmFeedforward

Nota

In C++, the `ArmFeedforward`

class assumes distances are angular, not linear. The passed-in gains *must* have units consistent with the angular unit, or a compile-time error will be thrown. `kS`

and `kG`

should have units of `volts`

, `kV`

should have units of `volts * seconds / radians`

, and `kA`

should have units of `volts * seconds^2 / radians`

. For more information on C++ units, see The C++ Units Library.

Nota

The Java feedforward components will calculate outputs in units determined by the units of the user-provided feedforward gains. Users *must* take care to keep units consistent, as WPILibJ does not have a type-safe unit system.

Nota

The API documentation for Python feedforward components indicate which unit is being used as `wpimath.units.NAME`

. Users *must* take care to use correct units, as Python does not have a type-safe unit system.

The `ArmFeedforward`

class calculates feedforwards for arms that are controlled directly by a permanent-magnet DC motor, with external loading of friction, inertia, and mass of the arm. This is an accurate model of most arms in FRC.

To create an `ArmFeedforward`

, simply construct it with the required gains:

Nota

The `kA`

gain can be omitted, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. For many mechanisms, especially those with little inertia, it is not necessary.

```
// Create a new ArmFeedforward with gains kS, kG, kV, and kA
ArmFeedforward feedforward = new ArmFeedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA);
```

```
// Create a new ArmFeedforward with gains kS, kG, kV, and kA
frc::ArmFeedforward feedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA);
```

```
from wpimath.controller import ArmFeedforward
# Create a new ArmFeedforward with gains kS, kG, kV, and kA
feedforward = ArmFeedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA)
```

To calculate the feedforward, simply call the `calculate()`

method with the desired arm position, velocity, and acceleration:

Nota

The acceleration argument may be omitted from the `calculate()`

call, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. This should be done whenever there is not a clearly-defined acceleration setpoint.

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a position of 1 units, a velocity of 2 units/second, and
// an acceleration of 3 units/second^2
// Units are determined by the units of the gains passed in at construction.
feedforward.calculate(1, 2, 3);
```

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a position of 1 radians, a velocity of 2 radians/second, and
// an acceleration of 3 radians/second^2
// Output is in volts
feedforward.Calculate(1_rad, 2_rad_per_s, 3_rad/(1_s * 1_s));
```

```
# Calculates the feedforward for a position of 1 radians, a velocity of 2 radians/second, and
# an acceleration of 3 radians/second^2
# Output is in volts
feedforward.calculate(1, 2, 3)
```

## ElevatorFeedforward

Nota

In C++, the passed-in gains *must* have units consistent with the distance units, or a compile-time error will be thrown. `kS`

and `kG`

should have units of `volts`

, `kV`

should have units of `volts * seconds / distance`

, and `kA`

should have units of `volts * seconds^2 / distance`

. For more information on C++ units, see The C++ Units Library.

Nota

The Java feedforward components will calculate outputs in units determined by the units of the user-provided feedforward gains. Users *must* take care to keep units consistent, as WPILibJ does not have a type-safe unit system.

Nota

The API documentation for Python feedforward components indicate which unit is being used as `wpimath.units.NAME`

. Users *must* take care to use correct units, as Python does not have a type-safe unit system.

The `ElevatorFeedforward`

class calculates feedforwards for elevators that consist of permanent-magnet DC motors loaded by friction, inertia, and the mass of the elevator. This is an accurate model of most elevators in FRC.

To create a `ElevatorFeedforward`

, simply construct it with the required gains:

Nota

The `kA`

gain can be omitted, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. For many mechanisms, especially those with little inertia, it is not necessary.

```
// Create a new ElevatorFeedforward with gains kS, kG, kV, and kA
ElevatorFeedforward feedforward = new ElevatorFeedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA);
```

```
// Create a new ElevatorFeedforward with gains kS, kV, and kA
// Distance is measured in meters
frc::ElevatorFeedforward feedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA);
```

```
from wpimath.controller import ElevatorFeedforward
# Create a new ElevatorFeedforward with gains kS, kV, and kA
# Distance is measured in meters
feedforward = ElevatorFeedforward(kS, kG, kV, kA)
```

To calculate the feedforward, simply call the `calculate()`

method with the desired motor velocity and acceleration:

Nota

The acceleration argument may be omitted from the `calculate()`

call, and if it is, will default to a value of zero. This should be done whenever there is not a clearly-defined acceleration setpoint.

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 20 units/second
// and an acceleration of 30 units/second^2
// Units are determined by the units of the gains passed in at construction.
feedforward.calculate(20, 30);
```

```
// Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 20 meters/second
// and an acceleration of 30 meters/second^2
// Output is in volts
feedforward.Calculate(20_mps, 30_mps_sq);
```

```
# Calculates the feedforward for a velocity of 20 meters/second
# and an acceleration of 30 meters/second^2
# Output is in volts
feedforward.calculate(20, 30)
```

## Using Feedforward to Control Mechanisms

Nota

Since feedforward voltages are physically meaningful, it is best to use the `setVoltage()`

(Java, C++, `Python`

) method when applying them to motors to compensate for «voltage sag» from the battery.

Feedforward control can be used entirely on its own, without a feedback controller. This is known as «open-loop» control, and for many mechanisms (especially robot drives) can be perfectly satisfactory. A `SimpleMotorFeedforward`

might be employed to control a robot drive as follows:

```
public void tankDriveWithFeedforward(double leftVelocity, double rightVelocity) {
leftMotor.setVoltage(feedforward.calculate(leftVelocity));
rightMotor.setVoltage(feedForward.calculate(rightVelocity));
}
```

```
void TankDriveWithFeedforward(units::meters_per_second_t leftVelocity,
units::meters_per_second_t rightVelocity) {
leftMotor.SetVoltage(feedforward.Calculate(leftVelocity));
rightMotor.SetVoltage(feedforward.Calculate(rightVelocity));
}
```

```
def tankDriveWithFeedforward(self, leftVelocity: float, rightVelocity: float):
self.leftMotor.setVoltage(feedForward.calculate(leftVelocity))
self.rightMotor.setVoltage(feedForward.calculate(rightVelocity))
```