PID Control in WPILib

Note

This article covers the in-code implementation of PID Control with WPILib’s provided library classes. Documentation describing the involved concepts in more detail is forthcoming.

Note

For a guide on implementing PID control through the command-based framework, see PID Control through PIDSubsystems and PIDCommands.

WPILib supports PID control of mechanisms through the PIDController class (Java, C++). This class handles the feedback loop calculation for the user, as well as offering methods for returning the error, setting tolerances, and checking if the control loop has reached its setpoint within the specified tolerances.

Using the PIDController Class

Note

The PIDController class in the frc namespace is deprecated - C++ teams should use the one in the frc2 namespace, instead. Likewise, Java teams should use the class in the wpilibj.controller package.

Constructing a PIDController

Note

While PIDController may be used asynchronously, it does not provide any thread safety features - ensuring threadsafe operation is left entirely to the user, and thus asynchronous usage is recommended only for advanced teams.

In order to use WPILib’s PID control functionality, users must first construct a PIDController object with the desired gains:

// Creates a PIDController with gains kP, kI, and kD
PIDController pid = new PIDController(kP, kI, kD);
// Creates a PIDController with gains kP, kI, and kD
frc2::PIDController pid(kP, kI, kD);

An optional fourth parameter can be provided to the constructor, specifying the period at which the controller will be run. The PIDController object is intended primarily for synchronous use from the main robot loop, and so this value is defaulted to 20ms.

Using the Feedback Loop Output

Note

The PIDController assumes that the calculate() method is being called regularly at an interval consistent with the configured period. Failure to do this will result in unintended loop behavior.

Warning

Unlike the old PIDController, the new PIDController does not automatically control an output from its own thread - users are required to call calculate() and use the resulting output in their own code.

Using the constructed PIDController is simple: simply call the calculate() method from the robot’s main loop (e.g. the robot’s autonomousPeriodic() method):

// Calculates the output of the PID algorithm based on the sensor reading
// and sends it to a motor
motor.set(pid.calculate(encoder.getDistance(), setpoint));
// Calculates the output of the PID algorithm based on the sensor reading
// and sends it to a motor
motor.Set(pid.Calculate(encoder.GetDistance(), setpoint));

Checking Errors

Note

getPositionError() and getVelocityError() are named assuming that the loop is controlling a position - for a loop that is controlling a velocity, these return the velocity error and the acceleration error, respectively.

Note

If using continuous input, use getContinuousError rather than getPositionError. Velocity error is unaffected.

The current error of the measured process variable is returned by the getPositionError() function, while its derivative is returned by the getVelocityError() function:

Specifying and Checking Tolerances

Note

If only a position tolerance is specified, the velocity tolerance defaults to infinity.

Note

As above, “position” refers to the process variable measurement, and “velocity” to its derivative - thus, for a velocity loop, these are actually velocity and acceleration, respectively.

Occasionally, it is useful to know if a controller has tracked the setpoint to within a given tolerance - for example, to determine if a command should be ended, or (while following a motion profile) if motion is being impeded and needs to be re-planned.

To do this, we first must specify the tolerances with the setTolerance() method; then, we can check it with the atSetpoint() method.

// Sets the error tolerance to 5, and the error derivative tolerance to 10 per second
pid.setTolerance(5, 10);

// Returns true if the error is less than 5 units, and the
// error derivative is less than 10 units
pid.atSetpoint();
// Sets the error tolerance to 5, and the error derivative tolerance to 10 per second
pid.SetTolerance(5, 10);

// Returns true if the error is less than 5 units, and the
// error derivative is less than 10 units
pid.AtSetpoint();

Resetting the Controller

It is sometimes desirable to clear the internal state (most importantly, the integral accumulator) of a PIDController, as it may be no longer valid (e.g. when the PIDController has been disabled and then re-enabled). This can be accomplished by calling the reset() method.

Setting a Max Integrator Value

Note

Integrators introduce instability and hysteresis into feedback loop systems. It is strongly recommended that teams avoid using integral gain unless absolutely no other solution will do - very often, problems that can be solved with an integrator can be better solved through use of a more-accurate feedforward.

A typical problem encountered when using integral feedback is excessive “wind-up” causing the system to wildly overshoot the setpoint. This can be alleviated in a number of ways - the WPILib PIDController offers an integrator range limiter to help teams overcome this issue.

Enabling this setting with the setIntegratorRange() method will prevent the total output contribution from the integral gain from exceeding the user-specified bounds.

// The integral gain term will never add or subtract more than 0.5 from
// the total loop output
pid.setIntegratorRange(-0.5, 0.5);
// The integral gain term will never add or subtract more than 0.5 from
// the total loop output
pid.SetIntegratorRange(-0.5, 0.5);

Setting Continuous Input

Warning

If your mechanism is not capable of fully continuous rotational motion (e.g. a turret without a slip ring, whose wires twist as it rotates), do not enable continuous input unless you have implemented an additional safety feature to prevent the mechanism from moving past its limit!

Warning

The continuous input function does not automatically wrap your input values - be sure that your input values, when using this feature, are never outside of the specified range!

Some process variables (such as the angle of a turret) are measured on a circular scale, rather than a linear one - that is, each “end” of the process variable range corresponds to the same point in reality (e.g. 360 degrees and 0 degrees). In such a configuration, there are two possible values for any given error, corresponding to which way around the circle the error is measured. It is usually best to use the smaller of these errrors.

To configure a PIDController to automatically do this, use the enableContinuousInput() method:

// Enables continuous input on a range from -180 to 180
pid.enableContinuousInput(-180, 180);
// Enables continuous input on a range from -180 to 180
pid.EnableContinuousInput(-180, 180);

Clamping Controller Output

Unlike the old PIDController, the new controller does not offer any output clamping features, as the user is expected to use the loop output themselves. Output clamping can be easily achieved by composing the controller with WPI’s clamp() function (or std::clamp in c++):

// Clamps the controller output to between -0.5 and 0.5
MathUtil.clamp(pid.calculate(encoder.getDistance(), setpoint), -0.5, 0.5);
// Clamps the controller output to between -0.5 and 0.5
std::clamp(pid.Calculate(encoder.GetDistance(), setpoint), -0.5, 0.5);